Thursday, March 31, 2016

Debate Team

Debate Team

Debate Team


Atkinson Measure: This statistical method for measuring income inequality was designed by Anthony B. Atkinson, professor of economics at Cambridge University. This measure is not as widely used as the Gini Coefficient or the Thiel Index, but it has one advantage over those systems; it allows statisticians to evaluate whether changes at the top or bottom of the income scale have contributed most to the observed inequality of incomes.

Consumption: Economists who question the significance of standard income inequality measures say that we should be considering differences in consumption, meaning the differences in what people actually purchase. Consumption studies find that even low income Americans are typically able to buy not only what they need, but also many non-essential items. Most official measures of income in the United States do not include food stamps, housing assistance, or even cash welfare payments. Yet these forms of assistance allow low-income Americans to maintain a standard of living beyond what would be indicated by official measures of their incomes.

Gini Coefficient: This is the standard international measure of income inequality; it was developed in 1912 by Italian statistician, Corrado Gini. All Gini coefficients range from zero (meaning perfect equality) to one (meaning maximum inequality). According to recent statistics compiled by the United Nations Development Programme, the United States is 73rd from the top of the list of countries with the greatest income equality (tied with Ghana and Turkmenistan). Topping the list is Denmark, closely followed by other northern European countries.

Great Compression: This is a term used by Princeton University economist, Paul Krugman, and others to refer to a period in American history where income inequality was less than it had historically been. The term refers to the period of the New Deal and the Second World War. Krugman’s thesis is that the norm in America has been a high level of income inequality. He believes that inequality in America has now returned to the levels once experienced during the time of the “robber barons” – meaning the time in the early Twentieth Century when people like Rockefeller and Dupont accumulated massive wealth.

Great Recession: Economists are now using this term to refer to the period at the end of 2008 and beginning of 2009 when the United States experienced a near stock market collapse as a result of the failures of major financial institutions such as Bear Stearns, AIG, and Lehman Brothers.

Poverty Line: The official “poverty line” in the United States was developed in the 1950s by Mollie Orshansky, a statistician for the Social Security Administration. The poverty line is adjusted for family size and inflation, but surprisingly, makes no adjustment for geographic differences in the cost of living. Orshansky noticed that low-income families tended to spend about one-third of their family income on food. Accordingly, she calculated the average cost of an “economy food plan,” assuming that meals are made from scratch at home. Then she simply multiplied the cost of the “economy food plan” by three to calculate the poverty line. Amazingly, this simplistic measure of poverty remains in use today. Critics from the political left say that the poverty line undercounts persons in poverty because the cost of food in the twenty-first century accounts for only 1/6 of the cost of living; this means that the cost of an “economy food plan” should be multiplied by 6, rather than by 3. Critics from the political right say that the poverty line over-counts persons in poverty because it makes fails to consider numerous sources of income; the poverty line calculations do not count food stamps, housing assistance, or even cash welfare payments as income.

Theil index: This measure of economic inequality was created by Dutch econometrician Henri Theil; it is part of a family of inequality measures called the Generalized Entropy Measures. Though less widely used than the Gini Coefficient, the Theil Index is considered by some statisticians to be more useful because it examines differences between subgroups (both geographic and racial) within countries, rather than merely to compare one country to another.


American Enterprise Institute: The Upside of Income Inequality june-magazine-contents/the-upside-of-income-inequality. This article argues that income inequality is actually a good thing because it indicates freedom of opportunity: “We conclude that the forces raising earnings inequality in the United States are beneficial to the extent that they reflect higher returns to investments in education and other human capital.”
Becker, Gary & Posner, Richard. Does Redistributing Income from Rich to Poor Increase or 
Reduce Economic Growth or Welfare? Dec. 29, 2013. redistributing-income-from-rich-to-poor-increase-or-reduce-economic-growth-or-welfare-posner.html. The authors argue that welfare benefits may worsen income inequality because they weaken the incentive to obtain meaningful employment: “At the bottom of the income distribution, there is a real reason for concern about the effects of redistribution on the work ethic: the incremental income from working may be negligible if the increment carries the recipient of benefits over the benefits threshold: he may lose in benefits all of or even more than his income increment from working.”
Curtis, Jack. The Income Inequality Scam. Oct. 12, 2015. 10/the_income_inequality_scam_.html. This article by a staff writer for The American Thinker, observes that the welfare state is an unsustainable solution for income inequality: “For those who, blinded by neat gadgets, talking cars, and smart homes feel rich by ignoring the mountainous debt that accompanies the toys, another question: with Medicare and Social Security facing a $66 trillion long term deficit and 17.5% of Gross Domestic Product taken in Federal taxes, (never mind states, counties and cities) how will Americans finance their aging years? ‘Income Inequality’ cures are sold with an implication: those with less, will be somehow, given more. If that were real, why would so many welfare state governments face non-repayable debts and unsustainable deficits? ‘Income Inequality’ is only an old scam reprised.”
Manhattan Institute: The Wealth Inequality Mirage. 

http://www.manhattan- This article argues that the differences in spending between the wealthiest and poorest Americans are no greater than they were twenty years ago: “The average annual spending for a household in the lowest quintile was $21,611, or $12,712 per person. In contrast, the average spending for a household in the top quintile was $94,244, or $30,401 per person. On a per person basis, the new Labor Department numbers show that in 2009 households in the top fifth of the income distribution spent 2.4 times the amount spent by the bottom quintile. That, Professor Reich might note, was about the same as 20 years ago.”
Meyer, Al. Staff), Welfare State Increases Income Inequality, Sept. 26, 2015. report-welfare-state-increases-income-inequality/. This surprising report offers empirical evidence that increasing welfare benefits actually will widen income inequality: “Welfare state spending increases income inequality, according to a report from the European Central Bank. The report examined the role of income, inheritance, and the welfare state and how it relates to household net wealth across European countries. The report found that in countries where there was a more developed welfare state, there was a higher inequality of wealth. ‘An increase in welfare state spending goes along with an increase—rather than a decrease—of observed wealth inequality,’ the report states. The European Central Bank says this happens because social services act as substitutes and households are therefore less incentivized to accumulate wealth.”

Moore, Stephen & Vedder, Richard. The Surprising States that Have Greater Income Inequality. June 8, 2014. The authors offer surprising evidence that income inequality is actually higher in the states that offer higher welfare beenfits: “For those in Washington obsessed with reducing income inequality, the standard prescription involves raising taxes on the well-to-do, increasing the minimum wage, and generally expanding government benefits—the policies characterizing liberal, blue-state governance. If only America took a more “progressive” approach, the thinking goes, leaving behind conservative, red-state priorities like keeping taxes low and encouraging business, fairness would sprout across the land. Among the problems with that view, one is particularly surprising: The income gap between rich and poor tends to be wider in blue states than in red states. Our state-by-state analysis finds that the more liberal states whose policies are supposed to promote fairness have a bigger gap between higher and lower incomes than do states that have more conservative, pro-growth policies.” 

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Response Essays

Politics and Government Scottsboro response essay due Tues, April 5.

Democratizing Civil Rights response essay due Wed, April 6. 

Monday, March 28, 2016

Democratizing Twentieth Century America - Homework - Due Tues, March 29

Why then? Why did the Black Power Movement get underway when it did?

Read "Black Power" on pages 110-111 in Franklin. Complete a primary source analysis. Remember to focus on the historical context and connections. How do the authors' ideas reflect major events mentioned in other texts? You should define any key terms with which you are unfamiliar.

Politics and Government - Homework - Due - Tues, March 29

How has the court been used to expand/inhibit liberty?
Is the death penalty an essential part of the criminal justice system?
How does race impact punishments and the implementation of justice?
Eighth Amendment

1 - Read, take detailed notes:

Furman v Geogia 

2 - Answer the following:

a) Why is the Furman v Georgia case significant?
b) What did the court hold in this ruling, and why?
c) How is this ruling different from most other court decisions?

3 - Read the following article, take notes. Your notes should reflect the articles central ideas, note key terms, and consider important events. Moreover, you should be sure the note important decisions and precedents established.

Thursday, March 24, 2016


12th Grade
Black Power - Madison, Carmen, Kaya, Coby
LGBT Liberation - Alena, Kenneth, Oliver, Jasmine
Women's Liberation - Jasmina, Janey, Kashfina, Nhajee
Anti Vietnam War- Anthony, Patryk, Osvaldo, Dave
Latino Cultural Liberation- Natalie, Grace, Andrea, Layla

11th Grade
Black Power - Mary, Noah, Nicole, Samantha, Brittany
LGBT Liberation - Tiffany, Cynthia, Whitney, Raven, Maximilian, Elsie
Anti Vietnam War - Koby, Carrig, Noel, Ivaleez, Branden
Women's Liberation - Nathalie, Sophia, Beth, Kathleen, Julia, Angel
Red Power - Benjamin, Paloma, Kwame, Kelsey
Latino Cultural Liberation - Henry, Brian, Jonathan, Karolyn

Monday, March 21, 2016

Politics and Government - Homework - Due - Tues, March 22

1 - Read, annotate, and take notes: Understanding Powell v Alabama 

   - Why is the Powell case significant?

2 - Read, annotate, and take notes on the handout provided in class today, an excerpt from Norris v Alabama.

What did the court rule in this case? Why did the court rule the way it did?

Discuss the provisions of the Alabama statute regarding jury service.

What evidence does the defendant (Norris via his legal team) provide to demonstrate blacks had been excluded from juries?

What evidence suggested someone tampered with the jury rolls?

Discuss the history of the participation of blacks on juries in Morgan County.

Why does the Supreme Court reverse the judgments of the lower courts?

3 - Finish Without Fear or Favor, annotate, take notes

4 - Select a question to write about for your Scottsboro response essay. 

Saturday, March 19, 2016

Credit Recovery

Read Zinn "War is the Health of the State" pages 359-365

Answer the following questions.  Support your answers with quotes from the text

Why did Sen Wadsworth propose a draft?

How/why do you think British military requirements changed over time?

How did industrialization impact the nature of war?

What was “no man’s land?”

Discuss the impact of media coverage.

Why did Wilson enter the war?

Discuss the William Jennings Bryant quote: “…opened the doors of all weaker countries to an invasion of American capital and enterprise.
How does this quote connect to the concept of imperialism?

Why did W. E. B. DuBois call the war a "Battle for Africa"?

Compare the Committee on Public Information, the Socialists, and the Alliance for Labor and Democracy's stances on the War.

Friday, March 18, 2016

Democratizing Twentieth Century - Homework - Due Monday, March 21


1 - What tactics did Southerners use to resist against the increased civil rights activism.

2 - Discuss the Northern migration of African Americans and its impact.

3 - Who were the "Black Muslims" and why are they significant?

4 - Identify: Clarence Mitchell

5 - Discuss the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the reactions of both its proponents and opponents.

6 - Discuss the impact of international events on the passage of the Act.

7 - Identify: Pauli Murray, Ella Baker, Fannie Lou Hamer, Daisy Bates, Angela Davis

8 - What role did the Supreme Court play in protecting black voting rights?

9 - Discuss the role of blacks in the election of 1960.

10 - What gains did blacks make as a result of Kennedy's actions?

11 - Identify: Freedom to the Free

12 - Discuss JFK's proposed Civil Rights bill. Why did some oppose it?

13 - Why didn't DuBois participate in the March on Washington?

14 - Identify: Edwards v South Carolina, Johnson v Virginia

15 - Identify: 24th Amendemnt

16 - Discuss the politics of passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964

17 - Discuss the white backlash against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, more specifically, the actions of the Ku Klux Klan.

18 - Discuss the election of 1964.

19 - Identify: Ralph Bunche

20 - Discuss the gains made by blacks within the Johnson administration.

21 - Discuss the economic inequality between blacks and whites in the North. In what ways did Federal policies contribute to housing inequality?

Thursday, March 17, 2016

No Homework Tonight

Hey Folks,

I got distracted w play rehearsal and did not post the homework. I will NOT make this mistake tomorrow.


Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Democratizing Twentieth Century America - Homework - Due - Thursday, March 17

1 - Read Gosse, pgs 72 - 77

2 - Complete two primary source analyses, one for Letter from Birmingham and the second for John Lewis's speech. 

Politics and Government - Homework - Due - Thurs, March 17

1 - If you have not already read, analyzed, and interpreted the sixth amendment, please do so. You should define any unfamiliar terms.

2 - Read pgs 1 - 6 in Without Fear or Favor, annotate, and take notes.

3 - Create an analysis web or a chart for Judge Horton. You will be expected to add to this as you read the entire document, so I advise allotting at least a page for this task. Your web or chart should address what the character thinks, believes, says, and does, and each of these categories should be supported with evidence from the text. Moreover, you should make a clear assertion for each category before you provide the evidence. For instance, you may say that Thomas Knight thinks he can persuade the jury to be impartial, despite the racist attitudes held by the prospective jurors.  You also need to analyze and interpret the evidence you provide. You will not receive full credit if you don't meet the aforementioned guidelines.

4 - Identify each of the following individuals. Your identification should discuss the individual's significance and provide evidence from the text.

a) Norris
b) Powell
c) Bates
d) Price
e) Roddy and Moody
f) Knight
g) Leibowitz

5 - Discuss the social climate and physical conditions under which the first trial took place, both inside and outside of the courtroom. Why are these conditions significant? How do you think they impacted proceedings in the courtroom?

6 - Discuss media coverage of the case. How did it contribute to the overall tone and atmosphere? Provide evidence from the text.

7 - Why did Leibowitz ask for the indictments to be quashed, especially since he knew his motion would probably be denied?

8 - Discuss cultural differences between Northerners and Southerners.

Saturday, March 12, 2016

Credit Recovery - Due - Saturday, March 19

EQ: How did industrialization politically, culturally, and economically transform the United States?

Read: The Progressive Movement 
Read Zinn 328 - 338

a)    Discuss Samuel Gompers’ position on the race question in the South? Is this position consistent with the overall goals of organized labor? Explain
b)    Discuss the role race played in the labor movement.
c)     Discuss Zinn’s characterization of Gompers. Does he believe Gompers is a good labor leader? 
d)    Compare and contrast the AFL and the IWW. Make a Venn diagram. 
e)    Identify: Eugene Debbs
f)     Identify: Mother Mary Jones
g)    Define: direct action
h)    Define: anarcho-syndicalism
i)      In what ways did the IWW try to transform the political and economic order?
j)      What were “free speech fights?” Provide an example
k)     Discuss the social and economic issues faced by workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts. 
l)      Identify: Ettor and Giovanitti

Read Zinn 338 - 343, take notes, and answer the following questions:

1 - How did women's participation in the workforce change during the early 20th century? How does Mother Jones' description of women's work in breweries illustrate this change?

2 - Discuss Debs' critique of trade unions. Is his critique more aligned with the AFL or IWW? Explain.

3 - Discuss the relationship between industrialization, immigration, and socialism.

4 - Identify: Big Bill Heywood

5 - Discuss the growth of the socialist movement during the early 20th century. How did the movement help facilitate women's entrance into the public sphere?

6 - Discuss the relationship between the socialist and suffrage movements.

**Your answers should include evidence from the text. Note the page number of the text.

Notes Rubric:

4 - clearly shows connections between at least 2 causes of the Women's Suffrage Movement: industrialization, immigration, increases in women's education, WWI
- clearly demonstrates understanding of all the article's central ideas
- provides evidence/quotes to support your claims/arguments; evidence includes numeric data, relevant people and events
- notes are neat and organized; contain headings that show general ideas; contain bullets, numbers, letters or other symbols to distinguish supporting ideas and evidence

3 - shows connections between 2 causes of the Women's Suffrage Movement: industrialization, immigration, increases in women's education, WWI
- demonstrates understanding of most of the article's central ideas
- provides evidence/quotes to support your claims/arguments; evidence includes numeric data, relevant people and events
- notes are neat and organized; contain headings that show general ideas; contain bullets, numbers, letters or other symbols to distinguish supporting ideas and evidence

2 - shows connections between one or two causes of the Women's Suffrage Movement: industrialization, immigration, increases in women's education, WWI
- demonstrates understanding of two or less of the article's central ideas
- little evidence/quotes to support your claims/arguments; little or no numeric data; little mention of major events or people
- notes are sloppy and unorganized; no headings to distinguish general ideas; doesn't contain bullets, numbers, letters or other symbols to distinguish supporting ideas and evidence

1 - 

Zinn pgs 347 - 357  

Support each of your answers with direct evidence from the text. 

1 - Describe and discuss the African American experience during the Progressive Period. What is Zinn's argument regarding Progressivism and blacks? 

2 - Discuss the actions blacks took to resist against white supremacy.

3 - List the pieces of progressive legislation (including constitutional amendments) that were passed. Explain what each did.

4 - Theodore Roosevelt is characterized by many historians as a champion of progressive reform. In what ways does Zinn challenge this characterization?

5 - Discuss the roles played by organizations such as the National Civic Federation and the Federal Trade Commission. In what ways were these organizations a response to the growing demand for socialism?

6 - Discuss the Colorado coal strike and the Ludlow Massacre.

7 - What is Zinn's overall argument about the Progressive Era? (At least two paragraphs, with evidence)

Thursday, March 10, 2016

Democratizing Twentieth Century America - Homework - Due - Monday, March 14

Please make sure you bring Gosse tomorrow!!!! 

Read Gosse introduction, pgs 1 - 23 

**Identify = Who or what is this? Why is this significant in the context of this unit? What are some details you can provide as evidence?

1 - What was the Old Left? How are the Old and New Lefts different?

2 - Select and discuss a quote that illustrates connections between the Civil Rights Movement and WWII.

3 - Select and discuss a quote that illustrates connections between the Civil Rights Movement and and the use of courts.

3 - Identify - Cold War Liberal

4 - What is de facto segregation?

5 - What were the goals of the Northern Civil Rights Movement?

6 - Identify: Malcolm X  

7 - What was covered by the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

8 - What was the Freedom Summer Project and what was its impact? 

9 - What was the Voting Rights Act and what key events led up to it? 

10 - What sparked the Free Speech Movement?

11 - Identify - Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

12 - Why were some Americans initially supportive of Castro?

13 - Discuss the goals and tactics of the early Gay Rights Movement

14 - Why did the liberal consensus fall apart in the late 1960s?

15 - Discuss the election of 1964.

16 - were some people radicalized by Vietnam?

17 - Identify: Eugene McCarthy

18 - What was the Black Power Movement and how did it differ from the Civil Rights Movement? Why did the Black Power Movement get underway when it did?

19 - Discuss connections between the Black Power and Women's Liberation Movements.

20 - Discuss the significance of international events in 1968.

21 - Identify: Richard Nixon 

Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Politics and Government - Homework - Due - Wed, March 9

1 - Read EACH of the following articles.

2 - For each article:

a) What are the text's central ideas? What do the authors want you to know, think, and believe? What important people, events, and legislation is discussed?

b) Select and discuss several pieces of evidence from each article. 

c) How does this connect to the EQ? Should eminent domain be used to help restore struggling communities? 

Does N.J. have eminent domain power for Shore protection?

Debate Groups

Resolution: The right to bear arms is essential in a free and democratic society.

1-Affirmative: Gloriel F, Gunthrie M, Desmond S.
    Negative:  Ellen S, Alfredo R, Mariam S.

2-Affirmative: Dylan T, Vasilisa L, Thomas M. 
   Negative:  Ellen S, Alfredo R, Mariam S. 

3-Affirmative: Doris G, Emma H, Max F. 
   Negative:  Ally D, Brandon M, Athena V.

Resolution: The death penalty is a necessary component of our justice system.

1-Affirmative: Vincenzo A, Tess D, Logan M.
    Negative:  Lily D, Amanda H, Allison H. 

2-Affirmative: Yosrick A, Jackie S, Ryan A. 
   Negative:  Kaylah T, Veronica W, Sheila C. 

Resolution: Eminent domain should be invoked to encourage private development of economically disadvantaged communities.

1-Affirmative: Nick W, Augustus D, Danny S.
    Negative:  Danny R, Michael S, Jordan S. 

Resolution Government should improve educational opportunities for disadvantaged students by facilitating access to parochial schools.

1-Affirmative: Kayla M, Nilou M, Eldin P, Emily C.
    Negative:  Sarah M, Allie R, Nikki Lee.

2-Affirmative: Gregory N, Ashley R, Anastasiya S.
   Negative:  Aiden F, Ahmed N, Jourdan S.

Resolution Public schools should be allowed to implement mandatory drug testing for all students.

1-Affirmative: Angella R, Anderson A, Ana N. 
    Negative: Jaqueline L, Tristan T, Alexander C.

Monday, March 7, 2016

Democratizing Twentieth Century America - Homework - Due - Tuesday, March 8

1 - Read Kennedy's speech on civil rights

2 - Summarize the speech's central ideas. What did Kennedy want people to know, think, and believe? 

3 - Select three or four ample quotes from the speech that illustrate the speech's central ideas. Explain. 

4 - What historical events may have impacted the author of this document? How? 

5 - How does this text confirm or refute something you read in a previous text? 

6 - How could this document be used to answer the question: Why then? Why did the Civil Rights Movement get underway when it did?